The largest reservoir of fresh water on planet Earth
Lake Baikal is not only the most voluminous lake. It is the deepest and one of the oldest. Baikal is the deepest cleft on the surface of the planet. This cleft is the most complex and least understood fault zone of the earth’s crust. The depth of the lake on average is 745 meters and the deepest point reaches 1637 meters. The lake stretches for 636 km, while its width is 80 km from the Surface of the lake is 31 000 km2.
This ancient lake is formed 20-30 million years ago by tectonic shifts. Fresh and clean water in the lake is maintained by two factors. First, it is home to the endemic Baikal epishura – microscopic crustacean that filters a huge number of algae and bacteria. In addition, most of the watershed of lake Baikal supported by craggy rocks. Thus, the flow of water towards the lake is almost in contact with the sediment and minerals. This oligotrophic lake, and its water has an excellent drinking quality.
Flows into the lake, 365 rivers, including the Yenisei – the largest river of Siberia. The lake contains 20% of fresh water on the Earth’s surface. The volume of fresh water in the lake is 26 000 cubic kilometers. The ancient cistern is one of the cleanest in the world. Water extracted from the depths of the lake, you can drink Continue reading
5.1 Classification and water balance of lakes
Lakes are referred to as water-filled basins or depressions of the earth’s surface, which has no direct connection with the sea (ocean) and characterized by slow water exchange.
In the development of the lake can be divided in three phases :
the lake basin remains almost unchanged, the existing deposits have not have a noticeable impact on his couch;
– formed coastal shoal, there is a Delta at the confluence of the rivers develop water vegetation;
– roughness of the smoothed basin of sedimentation due to products of destruction of coast and slopes of the deltas extends onshore shallow, reduced depth, vegetation covers almost the entire surface of the lake.
In the future it turns into a small pond with the widespread development of vegetation, of which the underwater part goes to the surface and turns the lake into a swamp.
The origin of the lakes can be dammed, hollows and mixed.
Dammed lakes are formed due to the overlap of the river valley by a cave with sediment, the detrital material of the retreating glacier.
Hollow lake, depending on the circumstances and causes of the education basin are tectonic, volcanic, deflationary, glacial, karst and thermokarst.
Lakes in tectonic basins were formed by tectonic Continue reading